Walking through the streets of Christianshavn, surrounded by shop windows filled with everything from a pack of multi-colored square sponges to a polka-dotted purple dress paired with a slightly yellowed set of fake pearls, one might be a bit surprised to find the legendary alternative society of Christiania in the midst of such an ordinary city. Yet, in the middle of this mundane hubbub of busy Danes making their way to the shops, work and school and back again, is such a place. If one follows the younger, hipper crowd or the hippies and hobos, sooner or later you will end up in Denmark´s own “Free Town.” A wooden totem sign proudly stands at the entrance of Christiania, welcoming all who enter and defiantly declaring to all to those who exit, “You are now entering the EU,” defining the boundaries of European law. This self-proclaimed anarchical society of 1,000 people has been characterized by a mixture of rebellion and complacency since its establishment in 1971.
However, large numbers of free thinkers and rebellious youth most likely swarmed into the 34 hectares of abandoned land and buildings when the alternative magazine “Hovedbladet” (Head Magazine) published a spoof article declaring the area to be “occupied” and encouraging people to move in.
According to popular legend and to the “Zid” who works in the information office of the controversial community of Christiania, local citizens knocked down some of the outlying fences of the 300 year old military barracks owned by the Defence Ministry, in order to make a playground for their children and the “have something green to look at.” However, large numbers of free thinkers and rebellious youth most likely swarmed into the 34 hectares of abandoned land and buildings when the alternative magazine “Hovedbladet” (Head Magazine) published a spoof article declaring the area to be “occupied” and encouraging people to move in. Over the past 30 odd years Christiania, named after King Christian (1577 – 1645) who commissioned the barracks, has suffered both victories and defeats. In 1975, Folketinget (Danish Parliament) declared that Christiania would be cleared of its inhabitants. This decision was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1978. However, the Danish government has never carried through with the decision and avoided altering the society significantly over the years, with the exception of the licensing or “legalization” of legitimate businesses within the area in 1991. Every few years however, the government begins a new campaign to alter, normalize, legalize, and even close this unique society which has come to symbolize the liberal idealism that not only Danes, but many people the world over cherish.
Hash has been the only drug accepted in Christiania since its self-imposed ban on hard drugs in 1979.
The Politics of Hash Why all the controversy?
Most people see the dilemma of Christiania´s survival resting on the “hash problem.” On “Pusher Street,” a small dirt alley running through the heart of the city, the hash trade flourishes. Hash is sold, smoked and toked in Christiania, often in direct defiance of government protocol. Hash has been the only drug accepted in Christiania since its self-imposed ban on hard drugs in 1979. According to the Copenhagen Tourist Office, as a tourist attraction, Christiania shares the place of number one with Tivoli, the oldest amusement park in the world. However, many politicians would quickly remind us that Christiania is not Tivoli. Christiania is filled with “crime” they insist. These politicians, from the Danish Folk Party, the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party, loosely use the term “crime” as a catchword to describe the goings on in the “Free Town” and perhaps to exaggerate the nature of illegal activity that goes on in Christiania. Upon more pressing questioning, most politicians, including Ulrik Kragh, a member of the Parliament and the party Venstre from the right, will admit that the major crime of concern in Christiania is the trafficking of “cannabis,” “haschisch,” or simply hash. Ole Wagner Hansen, Chief of the Narcotics Division of the Copenhagen Police and Criminal Inspector, confirms this, but believes the trafficking of stolen goods may also occur on a small scale. The Danish police have become concerned with a new “development” in the nature of Christiania crime that has occurred within the last two years. In 2002, 15 different raids of Christiania allowed the police to confiscate a total of two pistols, one revolver, one machine gun, one shotgun, knives, tear gas, and an undisclosed amount of ammunition. Hansen is very disturbed with this new trend and along with other police and politicians, views it as a sign that the people of Christiania are “arming themselves.” However, it is quite possible that the very small number of weapons found during those 15 raids, are just the paraphernalia of a few criminal persons living in the city and should not be viewed as a sign of mass preparation for violent confrontation. According to Kai Vittrup, Chief Police Inspector in Copenhagen, the police must act against the trafficking of hash in Christiania because it has become increasingly difficult to justify the continuation of illegal activity within the small community.
“Common Meetings” in which all participants have equal voice in principle are held to decide what must be done about a specific issue.
He explains how many ordinary citizens are angered by the idea that while they can be fined for speeding, in Christiania, drug dealers continue to earn untaxed revenue unchecked. To them, it seems that the police turn a blind eye. What´s more is that many people both within Christiania and outside in Copenhagen are disturbed by the idea that the biker gangs “Hell´s Angels” and “Banditos,” who supply much of the hash sold in Christiania, control Pusher Street, extorting heavy dividends from the hash vendors. Those living in Christiania who disapprove of such conditions can actually do very little about it, though the government demands that they break the organized crime ring if they are to survive as a community. Fear of violent reprisal from biker thugs possibly keeps many quiet. In Christiania, decisions are made through consensus and not majority vote. “Common Meetings” in which all participants have equal voice in principle are held to decide what must be done about a specific issue. Our friend at Christiania´s information office, “Zid” described the decision-making that takes place in Christiania as the most natural form of “direct” democracy and accordingly, very different from the “representative” democracy instituted in the larger Danish society. Division within Christiania, however, makes it hard to make any decision about the debate over hash. Vittrup claims that one-third of the population living in Christiania would like to keep the hash trade going because they either smoke it or sell it, one-third of the people would like to close Pusher Street and one-third simply don´t care either way. Such strong division makes consensus hard to reach in Christiania. The subject of hash is avoided altogether in the Common Meetings because of the stark contrasts of opinions within the community. We recently learned from an anonymous source, that a new rule was passed in Christiania, which forbids intimidation or verbal threats and purpots to thwart such behavior with expulsion. Before, physical violence and the sell or use of hard drugs had to occur before such punishment could be executed. The misuse of power wielded by the Biker gangs perhaps played a large role in this new decision.
Many foreigners who visit Denmark come because they want to experience this unique community.
Beyond the Hash Problem: Diversity in Danger
Some Danes living in Copenhagen argue that Christiania is getting a “free ride” from the government and feel cheated. However, such opinions reflect common popular misconceptions. According to Dorthe Sallerup of the Ministry of Defence, although the people of Christiania do not pay rent per say, they pay for both real property taxes and personal taxes. Since 1994, the people of Christiania have paid for all the following services: water, electricity, sewer, the removal of refuse, chimney cleaning and fire-fighting dues among others. After 1996, the system was changed so that individuals pay for their use of electricity, water and heating. Each adult (persons over 18 years of age) living in Christiania also pays 1,500.00 kroner per month to the “Common Fund” of Christiania. The Common Fund covers a variety of expenses the community incurs, including building maintenance and VAT (Value Added Tax) of some of the smaller private businesses in Christiania. The other larger businesses pay the VAT directly to the customs authority.
Christiania also generates a lot of revenue for the Danish economy. The amount of tourist revenue that Christiania produces benefits the entire economic sector. An estimated 500,000 people visit Christiania every year. Many foreigners who visit Denmark come because they want to experience this unique community. In the process, they eat in the restaurants of Copenhagen, stay in its hotels and spend money in a variety of other ways, which help to boost the Danish economy. There is no doubt that the trafficking of hash has a lot to do with Christiania´s appeal, but Christiania is much more than a “Hash Haven.” Christiania has come to absorb many types of people that have been attracted to its positive anarchical communal practices, which have allowed a unique creativity and diversity to flourish. Intellectuals and artists alike have been charmed by the city that seems to welcome a creative spirit and open mind. Houses with such names as the “Red Sun,” “Temple Toilet,” “The Sixth Sense,” “The Pyramid” and “The Dandelion” bespeak a colourful and original intent to create a unique atmosphere in this controversial community. These houses and many open gardens in Christiania are given special touches of design, decorated with bright colors and even graffiti that now make up an eclectic Christiania culture. The value of such a place and people cannot easily be measured. Kasper Wrang, of the Danish Environmental Institute, an institution which performs many cost-benefit analyses concerning the environment, suggests that Christiania has an intrinsic “existence value.” Many Danes like to think that Christiania is a culmination or manifestation of the liberal idealism they believe to be an intrinsic part of the Danish society and culture. To know that such a place as Christiania exists, where one is free to live in any way they choose as long as he or she is not harming their neighbor (or using hard drugs) gives many people outside of Christiania great satisfaction, motivation and hope. Christiania, for many, is a center of art, underground culture, social awareness and diverse creativity.
Christiania is a place where a special kind of creativity and art has flourished, which might have otherwise been choked by the real world of credit cards, car pools and conferences.
Thousands of people flock to Christiania to listen to live music from world names like Bob Dylan, Alanis Morissette and Rage Against the Machine, to people-watch or enjoy a beer and hash cigarette at “Café Nemoland” or to see exhibitions addressing issues of social activism such as the “Free Tibet” movement. As Nette Vestergaard Olsen, the resident doctor of Christiania asserts, Christiania is a place where a special kind of creativity and art has flourished, which might have otherwise been choked by the real world of credit cards, car pools and conferences. In Christiania many different kinds of artists peddle their goods. Composting, a hardware store with recycled goods, chemical-free foods and special “Christiania bikes” are among the tangible results of this social experiment. Christiania´s popularity has spread far and wide. Peoples from all classes, nationalities and backgrounds compete for a chance to live in the community. One must now gain an invitation from Christiania residents in order to secure a place in this famous city. However, along with bohemian intellectuals and artists, Christiania has also attracted many social “misfits” and “undesirables” who find difficulty fitting in the demanding world outside and find an “unofficial” home in Christiania. Many of these people are homeless and have little emotional or economic resources. As one would imagine, a portion of those people who wander the streets of the “Free City” have either alcohol or hash addiction problems or both.
Social Action in Christiania
When Christiania instituted a ban on hard drugs in 1979 it was because the use of hard drugs in Christiania had resulted in many cases of junkies and addicts. That was also when the social office of Christiania, “Herfra og Videre,” literally translated, “From This Point On,” opened. A volunteer office until the mid-80´s, Herfra og Videre initiated several programs to address the addiction problems of people living in Christiania. Over the years, it has developed into a general social welfare office where not only drug addicts come for help, but also where the elderly come if they need a leaky roof fixed or where a disgruntled teenager might come to find a sympathetic ear. Herfra og Videre cooperates with other social offices and organizations in Copenhagen to create a network of social advocacy for those who have difficulty establishing contacts outside of Christiania because of both physical and social problems or because they cannot speak Danish adequately.
Although both women are educated, they were quick to remind us that education was not the most important requirement for work at this special office.
Often the office workers might accompany those who feel uncomfortable to social offices outside of Christiania where some of their more specific needs can be better addressed. Funded by the Danish government, the office now is allotted funds for the maintenance of three full-time positions, which are currently shared by 5 part-time employees. The little known office spends much of its time dedicated to outreach in Christiania, while at the same time encouraging self-help and community initiatives. Many might say it sounds to good too be true. Before we made our way up the dusty stairs of one of the tall gray brick buildings dotting the landscape of Christiania in search of this peculiar place, we also would have had trouble believing in its existence or in its workers amount of activity and dedication. Our reluctant steps and hesitant knock on the door to Herfra og Videre gave away the fact that we were not prepared for the bright, clean office that waited inside. We were surprised to find the two smiling faces of Lisbeth Olsen and Ulla Månsson, very normal looking women, busy with that day´s work. Ulla quickly offered us tea and coffee and after Lisbeth finished a phone call, both women sat down with us in an adjacent room to answer our questions about the office.
Although both women are educated, they were quick to remind us that education was not the most important requirement for work at this special office. Passion and dedication are the job skills needed for such a demanding job. Because outreach to the community is a large part of the work at Herfra og Videre, it is important that the workers visit the weakest people in the community, checking to see if their needs are being met. Although office hours are officially 11am to 3pm, the employees of Herfra og Videre receive phone calls at home around the clock. As Lisbeth put it, the real problems begin after 3pm and the calls pour in.
It has become easier to work with people with addiction problems in Christiania because over the years, people have begun to admit that hash can be misused and result in addiction just like alcohol.
Fighting the Addiction
Outreach is also apart of the program to help addicts get off alcohol and hash. The workers of Herfra og Videre take those alcoholics and addicts who want help away for a month and a half to get them out of their normal environment and help them fight their drug problem. According to Lisbeth, in the last two years, Herfra og Videre has worked with 55 addicts. The varied results are the same as one might find in some of the more successful drug rehabilitation clinics around the world. Six are dead and six are now totally clean. Fifteen of these people are still smoking hash, but have given up alcohol and many of the others have made improvements, but are still struggling with addiction problems. Many of the people who have conquered their drug or alcohol problem with the help of Herfra og Videre now work with the organization to aid other addicts in their battle to give up substance abuse. This allows Herfra og Videre a unique ability to not only advise and encourage people struggling with addiction problems, it also empowers them with the added ability to empathize and relate to the addicts. There is no doubt that many people still struggle with addiction after taking the retreat and going through the program offered by Herfra og Videre, but Lisbeth reports that it has become easier to work with people with addiction problems in Christiania because over the years, people have begun to admit that hash can be misused and result in addiction just like alcohol. Before, many people who were addicted to hash, believed they couldn´t possibly have a problem. She feels that it is important for addicts to know what it is like to have a completely clear mind and thus, she tries to encourage them to stay off hash for at least three months. Though Lisbeth believes that hash can be addictive, like any other drug, she believes that hash should be legalized. “It is unfair,” she asserts, “that those who don´t have a problem should be criminalized.”
Catching Those Who Fall Through the Cracks
Herfra og Videre has also established a shelter for the homeless in Christiania. The “Starship” houses about 30 to 35 people with 4 or 5 people each sharing a room. The rent for these people is extremely low and allows them to maintain a decent living arrangement, while also having access to services that Herfra og Videre offers. Currently, everyone living in the “Starship” is from Greenland. Lisbeth and Ulla assured us that the “Starship” offered housing for anyone in need, but right now everyone there happens to be Greenlanders. This bothers Lisbeth very much. “It hurts me,” she asserted, moving her hand automatically towards her heart. She explains that many of the Greenlanders that come to Christiania come because they don´t know where else to go. “They come to Denmark to get help and they come to Christiania when they don´t get help.” Many of the Greenlanders that come to Christiania do not speak Danish very well and have been unable to come in contact with the proper office in the Danish welfare system that could help them. Christiania is the only alternative, besides a sidewalk or park bench, where these people can find a place to make their bed for the night. Perhaps they find help from Herfra og Videre after they have made their way to Christiania. Herfra og Videre may be able to help a lot of people who would fall through the cracks of other social offices. Of course, not everyone who comes to Christiania are looking for help. In Christiania, just like the world outside, a person must be willing to seek out help and be willing to make changes in his or her life, before addictions can be conquered. Of course, many people who do seek help, are not willing or able to follow through with the abstinence necessary to conquer such addictions. However, Herfra og Videre serves a unique function, because the people that may not be able to access the larger Danish welfare system, might find help at Christiania´s social office.
Politicians not only want to tackle the “hash problem” in Christiania, they also would like to alter Christiania in such a way that threatens to destroy its unique character and culture.
It is possible that the small office could do more if it was able to expand it operations, but funds are low. Herfra og Videre receives 1.9 million kroner from the Defense Department and from this they must pay workers´ salaries, accountant fees, office maintenance, insurance, transportation and other expenses the office requires in order to perform its functions adequately. Not very much is left for the social work and outreach. The office often writes the Social Ministry to request extra funds, but they don´t always get the funding they need. Many people do not even know that Herfra og Videre exists. As Lisbeth asserts, people need to know about this place right now because Christiania´s existence is being threatened.
Politicians not only want to tackle the “hash problem” in Christiania, they also would like to alter Christiania in such a way that threatens to destroy its unique character and culture. As early as 1995, the government developed a new policy plan to “normalize” the area. According to “Redegørelse om Christiania (Review on Christiania),” Normalization is a four point initiative: 1) To Establish the Same Infrastructure as the Rest of the City, 2) To Require the Citizens of Christiania to buy their Houses from the Ministry of Defense, 3) To Rennovate the Buildings in Christiania and 4) To Stop the Trafficking of Hash. According to this report, the government wants to create a new dynamic Christiania that all people in Copenhagen can enjoy and use. However, many people question their motives for attempting to “normalize” Christiania. It is a common misperception among the Danish population that the houses and other buildings in Christiania are dangerous and unhealthy. However, we spoke with the resident nurse or “health visitor”, Randi Steen, who visits many homes in Christiana everyday, about the health and living conditions of people in Christiania. Randi asserts that although in the 70´s many of the homes were inadequate, nothing more than small wooden trailers, most of the homes in Christiana are now clean, adequately built structures.
Is Renovation Necessary?
Yet many polticians in the government claim that the buildings in Christiania must be renovated because they are a sub-standard health hazard and that the people of Christiania are uncooperative, refusing to remove illegal structures that have been built without permission. In 1989, a law (Lov om anvendelse af Christianiaområdet) was made that required the people of Christiania to submit plans and gain permission from the Minister of Defense before they could build a house or add on to an existing structure.
Contrary to popular opinion, Randi Steen claims most of the residents of Christiania are just as normal and healthy as the rest of the Danish population.
However, for 13 years the government turned a blind eye to the 100 different constructions that took place, including both the building of new structures or additions to existing structures (often, these additions were made simply to add a toilet or shower). According to Foldschack & Forchhammer, the law firm that has taken up Christiania´s cause, in 2002, the new government asked that Christiania tear down 5 structures and the people complied without argument. As we sit near the shore of the Voldene, which runs through Christiania, Christianshavn and Amager, surrounded by exquisite greenery and fresh cool air, the sounds of the city outside faded in the distance. Children of different ages scurry about making sandcastles and splashing in the water. Adults continue about their daily chores, yet a watchful eye and an encouraging smile seem to constantly find its way to the children. Contrary to popular opinion, Randi Steen claims most of the residents of Christiania are just as normal and healthy as the rest of the Danish population. She goes on to assert some might even be a little healthier and happier because the cares of the bustling metropolis are not to be found in Christiania. Many children spend more time with their parents and on average may get more attention than the normal child living in Copenhagen. Adults collectively care for the children so often the children can roam about in the small community. If Christiania´s infrastructure were to be developed to the extent of surrounding Copenhagen, children could no longer be free to roam about. But is it safe for the children to scurry about with drunks wandering the streets of Christiania? Most of these people are harmless asserts Randi. However, if they were to bother the children, watchful adults would be quick to stop them. Doctor Nette Vestergaard Olsen, Christiania´s doctor, assured us that many people in the community are watching after the children. According to her, it is good for the children to grow up in this diverse community and also important for them to see that people are different.
Class Discrimination ?
Changing Christiania´s infrastructure would change its unique character as a city surrounded by nature. Ulla Forchhammer from the law firm Foldschack & Forchhammer fears that Christiania would become just like any other place in the city, with cars and buses buzzing through the streets. Because people do not have major health problems resulting from their living conditions and do not have problems moving about the city, it is not necessary that the government build up the infrastructure or renovate the buildings, especially since the people do not want this. Why does the government want to renovate the area then? Both Nette, Randi and many others believe that the government simply wants to push out the people who are now living in Christiania and develop the area by constructing new housing that might be attractive to more wealthy people. Lulla Forchhammer, one of the lawyers working on the Christiania case believes it is a matter of class discrimination. Forchhammer lived in Christiania for 28 years. She finds injustice in the idea that the people living in Christiania will eventually be forced out. “Why should one have to have money to live in such a beautiful place?” she asks.
The first step and indeed the linchpin of the “normalization” plan is the closing of Pusher Street.
The government would receive a lot more taxes directly if the poorer people in Christiania were forced to find new places to live because they could not afford to buy the houses or rent the apartments commissioned by private companies. It is possible the municipality could itself take on the construction of the area and thereby build affordable housing, but this is unlikely since Christiania is such a choice piece of land where the government could create the “new and exciting” atmosphere they want. Large-scale alterations of Christiania might prove to be a very complex endeavor because regulations protecting the historic military structures would severely limit the amount of construction that could take place. The revenue that Christiania generates for the Danish economy could not easily be replaced and the government might be wise to refrain from mass renovation of the area. Such a process would be gradual and costly, but it may eventually happen. However, the first step and indeed the linchpin of the “normalization” plan is the closing of Pusher Street. Many think this is the best way to combat not only hash trafficking in Christiania, but in Denmark and perhaps in Europe. The truth of the matter, however, is as Chief Police Inspector of the Copenhagen Police, Kai Vittrup asserts, hash dealing will simply move to other parts of the city. He is certain the hash trade will not disappear. Vittrup rather optimistically argues that if Pusher Street is closed, controlling dealing would require less manpower and resources. He believes it is easier to regulate the “hash clubs” that might spring up around the city after the closing of the infamous alley. However, it is possible that much more manpower and resources will be required to search out and regulate the growing hash trade.
Projections for the Future: Alternate Scenarios
If the politicians from the right are able to close Pusher Street, it is certain that Christiania will see a drop in revenue. Fortunately, it is very possible they will be able to survive economically because many people living in Christiania hold jobs outside of the “Free Town.” The people of Christiania are employed in a variety of businesses and institutions, from the service sector to academia. Businesses in Christiania, including the hash dealers, contribute approximately 34% of the funds that go into the Common Funds. The residents contribute a clear majority of funds (64%). However, there could be problems for Christiania later on down the road if Pusher Street is closed.
According to the newspaper “Urban,” 300,000 of the 5 million living in Denmark use hash either recreationally or regularly and that is not something that is going to go away with the closing of Pusher Street.
Eventually Christiania would lose much of its value as a tourist attraction because there is no doubt many come just because of the hash. The society will have lost its novelty and much of its support would then dwindle away. It will be easier then for the virtual closure or renovation to go along smoothly because there will not be a crowd of over 100,000 people there to stand in support of the community as there was on Sunday, June 15th. The government will be forced to find alternative ways to produce money from this social experiment if the tourist revenue is lost. Development of the area will be the most probable alternative for the municipality to acquire more revenue directly after Christiania has lost its popular appeal as a tourist attraction. However, further development of the area is probably not the most cost-effective way for Denmark to harness revenue from this beautiful land. What can be done to prevent the end to Christiania as a social experiment? One option is the legalization of hash. Dr. Nette Vestergaard Olsen admits that she is no expert on hash, but believes that its effects as a stimulant are no more harmful than that of alcohol or cigarettes. Of course, addiction to hash, like addiction to any other drug, can affect one´s reasoning and ability to function as productive member of society. Dr Vestergaard Olsen does think that adults should have a choice whether or not to smoke hash. According to the newspaper “Urban,” 300,000 of the 5 million living in Denmark use hash either recreationally or regularly and that is not something that is going to go away with the closing of Pusher Street. Dr. Vestergaard Olsen sees Pusher Street as a problem because minors from outside Christiania are able to purchase hash. If the hash trade were to be legalized, it would allow the Danish government and police to regulate this growing trade better. They could more effectively prevent the sale of hash to minors by instituting laws and regulations for this purpose and then making sure they are followed through under cover operations and heavy fines. Right now, a lot of Danish youth use hash and it is a problem. In Herfra og Videre, the social workers are trying to combat early addiction by creating a drug-free youth club. It is likely the problem of early addiction will increase if the problem is ignored. The Bikers are able to control Pusher Street because they have a virtual monopoly over the hash market and because they can intimidate anyone who defies their orders without fear of punishment. If hash were to be legalized, the Bikers in Pusher Street would lose the power they now have because they would have to compete with a market outside. It would also be easier for people involved in the hash trade to report intimidation or violence to the police. However, it is not likely that legalization of hash will occur in the near future and it is uncertain what effects the legalization of hash could have on addiction problems, so it is important that the people of Christiania look also for other ways to strengthen their chance of survival as a community.
It is also important that the Danish population be aware that renovation of these buildings might mean that one class of people will be pushed out because another wealthier class finds that land more attractive.
Preserving a Unique Social Minority In the Local Plan for Christiania of 1991, it is reported that Christiania has some of the best-preserved ramparts from its former function as a military fort. Built in the 17th century, these historical structures could also be developed into a source of tourist revenue. If Pusher Street is closed, it will be important for the people of Christiania to capture the world´s attention in another way in order to preserve the unique nature of this community. It is also important that the Danish population be aware that renovation of these buildings might mean that one class of people will be pushed out because another wealthier class finds that land more attractive. If the unique nature of Christiania is to be preserved, there must be support from the Danish population if Pusher Street is closed and Christiania loses its novelty to the larger international community. Normalization could mean an end to the social experiment and an end to this symbol of liberal idealism that Danes have prided themselves with for over 30 years. If Christiania is to survive, the Danish population must decide which is the best option: preserving Christiania as a unique social experiment or altering it in such a way that it becomes just an ordinary city surrounded by the mundane hubbub of another ordinary city.
“The Right Disagrees about Christiania.” Politiken 15 March 2003. Section 1: page 3.
“Christiania Guide.” Information Office of Christiania. (1996).
“Christiania: Paradox: Free Town divides The Right.” Berlingske Tidende. 14 March 2003. Section 1: page 2.
“Christiania: the Cleaner, Friendlier Amsterdam.” http://www.kabash.com/highlights/denmark _the_free_city_of_christiania-htm. 061703
Explanatory memorandum to the account from the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Justice about Christiania and the government´s working group discussing normalization and development of the Christiania-area, made by Lulla Forchhammer of Foldschack & Forschhammer (2003).
Framework agreement between Christiania and the Ministry of Defence (1999).
“Facts About Christiania.” The Official Christiania Web Page. http://www.christiania.org/info2/, 061703..
Ipsen, Jens-Martin. “Hashsmoking Free Town taunts the Police.” Urban. June 2003.
Law about the use of the Christiania-area (1989).
“Local Plan for Christiania” Ministry of Environment (1991).
“Review of Christiania” Report made by the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Justice. (2003).
“Zid” – staff member at the Information office in Christiania.
Lisbeth Olsen and Ulla Månsson, staff members at Herfra og Videre.
Randi steen, nurse.
Nette Vestergaard Olsen, doctor.
Ole Wagner Hansen, chief of the narcotic division in Copenhagen.
Kai Vittrup, Chief police inspector in Copenhagen.
Lulla Forchhammer, lawyer for Foldschack & Forchhammer.
Kasper Wrang, economist and staff member at the Institute for Environment estimation/valuation
Ulrik Kragh, Member of the Liberal Party (Venstre) and Member of Parliament.
Dorthe Sallerup, Staff member at the Ministry of Defence.